The KASCADE-Grande Experiment at KIT Campus North, Karlsruhe / Germany
KArlsruhe Shower Core and Array DEtector – Grande: The Research Subject
KASCADE – Grande is an extensive air shower experiment array to study the cosmic ray primary composition and the hadronic interactions in the energy range E0=1016-1018eV.
The experiment is situated on site of the former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (49,1°N, 8,4°O) at 110m a.s.l, corresponding to an average athmospheric depth of 1022g/cm2. It measures simultaneously the electromagnetic, muonic and hadronic componenets of extensive air showers of cosmic rays.
As an extension of the former KASCADE experiment running successfully since 1996, KASCADE-Grande was built by reassembling 37 stations of the former EAS-TOP experiment -basically the electromagnetic detectors- running between 1987 and 2000 at Campo Imperatore, Grand Sasso Loboratories, Italy.
One of the main results obtained by these two experiments is a picture of increasingly heavier composition above the 'knee' caused by a break in the spectrum of the light components. Conventional acceleration models predict a change of the composition towards heavier components. The discovery of the knee in the heavy components, represented by iron, would be a convincing verification of these theories. From the observed rigidity dependent breaks of the spectra of different lighter primaries observed between 1014 and 1016eV, the iron 'knee' is expected around E0=1017eV.
More about KASCADE.